最近看世足賽是不是緊張又刺激!

足球的起源到底是什麼呢?

一起來了解看看吧

 

 

History of Football - The Origins

The contemporary history of the world's favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sport's first governing body.

當代最受歡迎的運動的歷史已經持續超過一百年了,而它在1863年起源於英國,當時英式橄欖球和足球協會正式分支,Football Association (足球協會) in England 正式成立。

contemporary ( adj. )當代的

His lecture is on contemporary American novelists . 他的課程是關於當代美國小說家。

span ( v. ) 持續、延伸到

His career as a singer spanned three decades. 他的歌手生涯持續了三年。

rugby ( n. ) 英式橄欖球

branch off 分支

 

 

 

Both codes stemmed from a common root and both have a long and intricately branched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals at least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to which the historical development of football has been traced back. Whether this can be justified in some instances is disputable. Nevertheless, the fact remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of years and there is absolutely no reason to consider it an aberration of the more 'natural' form of playing a ball with the hands.oth codes 

這兩個規則的起源有許多共通點,而它們也都有複雜且長久的歷史演進,歷史上也可以追溯許多不同的比賽;雖然有些說法仍具有爭議性,但是不能否認的是人們非常享受踢球這個運動,而且已經持續好幾千年了,如果要說踢球是個背離自然的玩球方法(也就是用手玩),一點也不為過。

stem from 起源於

intricately ( adv. ) 複雜地

The movie has an intricate plot. 這部電影的情節很複雜。

disputable ( adj. ) 有討論空間的、有爭議性的

aberration ( n. ) 脫離常軌

For her, such a low grade on an exam was an aberration. 對他來說這麼低的成績是脫離常軌的。

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On the contrary, apart from the need to employ the legs and feet in tough tussles for the ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognised right at the outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and, as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from  military manual dating back to the second and third centuries B.C. in China.

除了運用腳這個特殊的玩法之外,在遊戲中通常沒有任何規則是關於防守,而它被認為是因為用腳控制球的技巧是一種藝術而且非常不容易,有科學研究顯示早期的足球可能是第二和第三世紀的中國用於軍事體能訓練。

tussle ( n. ) 爭鬥

The suspect was arrested after a tussle with a security guard. 這個嫌疑犯在和警衛的打鬥之後被逮捕。

military ( adj. ) 軍事的

He has had a long military career. 他有很長的軍事生涯。

manual ( adj. ) 體力的

 

 

This Han Dynasty forebear of football was called Tsu' Chu and it consisted of kicking a leather ball filled with feathers and hair through an opening, measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes. According to one variation of this exercise, the player was not permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest, back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his opponents. Use of the hands was not permitted. 

這種唐朝足球”的前身是用大約3040公分的羽毛和毛髮填入一個小網子然後再綁到竹子的莖上面。其中一個變化的玩法是,球員只能用腳、胸、背來護球以抵擋敵方的攻擊,而比賽是全程禁止使用雙手。

forebear ( n. ) 祖先

His forebears fought in the American Civil War. 他的祖先在美國獨立戰爭中打過仗。

cane ( n. )

withstand ( v. ) 抵擋

They withstood attacks from many critics. 他們抵擋許多帶有批評的攻擊。

permit ( v. ) 允許、准許

We ' ll discuss both questions if time permits . 如果時間允許的話,我們會討論這兩個問題。

 

 

Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began some 500-600 years later and is still played today. This is a sport lacking the competitive element of Tsu' Chu with no struggle for possession involved. Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each other, in a relatively small space, trying not to let it touch the ground.

另一種形式的比賽源自於日本,它被稱作Kemari,它比中國的起源晚了約五、六百年,至今仍有人在玩。這種遊戲比較沒有強烈的比賽、競爭意味,所有球員圍成一個圓圈,他們必須在相對較小的空間互相傳球,避免求落地。

originate from 起源於

competitive ( adj. ) 有競爭性的

You need a degree to be competitive in today's job market. 你需要一個學位來讓自己在就業市場變得更有競爭力。

relatively ( adv. ) 相對地

 

 

The Greek 'Episkyros' - of which few concrete details survive - was much livelier, as was the Roman 'Harpastum'. The latter was played out with a smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundary lines and a centre line. The objective was to get the ball over the opposition's boundary lines and as players passed it between themselves, trickery was the order of the day. The game remained popular for 700-800 years, but, although the Romans took it to Britain with them, the use of feet was so small as to scarcely be of consequence.

在希臘也有一種類似足球的比賽稱作Episkyros,然而它的比賽方法幾乎沒有保留下來。而在羅馬有Harpastum,他們會使用較小的球,比賽時有兩支隊伍,比賽場地則是長方形的,上面畫有邊界線和中線,球員的目標就是把球帶超過對方的邊界線,這種球賽受歡迎的時間長達七、八百年之久,雖然羅馬人把它傳入英國,但是只能用腳踢似乎並不受歡迎,所以並沒有大受歡迎。

boundary ( n. ) 邊界線

Those two trees mark the boundary of our property. 這兩棵樹代表了我們財產的界線。

remain ( v. ) 繼續存在、保持

Only two minutes still remain in the game. 比賽只剩兩分鐘。

   

 

參考資料 : FIFA官網 

 

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