History of Football - The Origins
The contemporary history of the world's favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sport's first governing body.
當代最受歡迎的運動的歷史已經持續超過一百年了，而它在1863年起源於英國，當時英式橄欖球和足球協會正式分支，Football Association (足球協會) in England 正式成立。
contemporary ( adj. )當代的
His lecture is on contemporary American novelists . 他的課程是關於當代美國小說家。
span ( v. ) 持續、延伸到
His career as a singer spanned three decades. 他的歌手生涯持續了三年。
rugby ( n. ) 英式橄欖球
branch off 分支
Both codes stemmed from a common root and both have a long and intricately branched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals at least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to which the historical development of football has been traced back. Whether this can be justified in some instances is disputable. Nevertheless, the fact remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of years and there is absolutely no reason to consider it an aberration of the more 'natural' form of playing a ball with the hands.oth codes
stem from 起源於…
intricately ( adv. ) 複雜地
The movie has an intricate plot. 這部電影的情節很複雜。
disputable ( adj. ) 有討論空間的、有爭議性的
aberration ( n. ) 脫離常軌
For her, such a low grade on an exam was an aberration. 對他來說這麼低的成績是脫離常軌的。
On the contrary, apart from the need to employ the legs and feet in tough tussles for the ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognised right at the outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and, as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from military manual dating back to the second and third centuries B.C. in China.
tussle ( n. ) 爭鬥
The suspect was arrested after a tussle with a security guard. 這個嫌疑犯在和警衛的打鬥之後被逮捕。
military ( adj. ) 軍事的
He has had a long military career. 他有很長的軍事生涯。
manual ( adj. ) 體力的
This Han Dynasty forebear of football was called Tsu' Chu and it consisted of kicking a leather ball filled with feathers and hair through an opening, measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes. According to one variation of this exercise, the player was not permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest, back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his opponents. Use of the hands was not permitted.
forebear ( n. ) 祖先
His forebears fought in the American Civil War. 他的祖先在美國獨立戰爭中打過仗。
cane ( n. ) 莖
withstand ( v. ) 抵擋
They withstood attacks from many critics. 他們抵擋許多帶有批評的攻擊。
permit ( v. ) 允許、准許
We ' ll discuss both questions if time permits . 如果時間允許的話，我們會討論這兩個問題。
Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began some 500-600 years later and is still played today. This is a sport lacking the competitive element of Tsu' Chu with no struggle for possession involved. Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each other, in a relatively small space, trying not to let it touch the ground.
originate from 起源於…
competitive ( adj. ) 有競爭性的
You need a degree to be competitive in today's job market. 你需要一個學位來讓自己在就業市場變得更有競爭力。
relatively ( adv. ) 相對地
The Greek 'Episkyros' - of which few concrete details survive - was much livelier, as was the Roman 'Harpastum'. The latter was played out with a smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundary lines and a centre line. The objective was to get the ball over the opposition's boundary lines and as players passed it between themselves, trickery was the order of the day. The game remained popular for 700-800 years, but, although the Romans took it to Britain with them, the use of feet was so small as to scarcely be of consequence.
boundary ( n. ) 邊界線
Those two trees mark the boundary of our property. 這兩棵樹代表了我們財產的界線。
remain ( v. ) 繼續存在、保持
Only two minutes still remain in the game. 比賽只剩兩分鐘。
參考資料 : FIFA官網